Question: Does ipfs have a light client?

how does light client validate and connect to a full node?

For fast there is no light client.

There is no consensus in IPFS so there is no need of any light client.

You can change dht to dht-client in the config (routing part) but that not a light client in the way of other cryptocurrency, your node continue to find by it self thing in the dht (with all fonctionality) but will stop to hosting a small part of the dht (that remove the server part for other node).

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IPFS is not a blockchain nor a cryptocurrency, it is a distributed file system so there are no light or full nodes. It is just like Bittorrent: everyone stores and serves what they want. But there is indeed a notion of “client” because IPFS is also a protocol like HTTP, so there are IPFS clients (we should rather say peers because they are both clients and servers) in the same way as for HTTP clients.